Armed forces are ever more likely to fight in cities as the world becomes increasingly urbanized. Accordingly, public and moral concerns about the costs of war borne by noncombatants increase as well. This report is a study of urban warfare and its challenges for U.S. armed forces constrained by having to minimize noncombatant casualties and collateral damage. America's armed forces are likely to have to confront the hell of urban combat. They have the potential to do so successfully. However, this environment's challenging character is unalterable; it will consume any force that fights unprepared. This study, based on an in-depth literature search and scores of interviews, has three primary objectives: (1) Describe the conditions confronting a ground force fighting under the constraints of minimizing noncombatant casualties and collateral damage, along with the difficulties of fighting under such conditions in urban areas; (2) Identify U.S. armed forces' current capabilities and ongoing efforts to enhance them; and (3) Determine current shortfalls and present potential remedies for identified vulnerabilities. Consideration of such solutions will include analysis of feasible changes in doctrine, training, and technologies that would give regular U.S. forces the capability to successfully perform constrained urban operations.
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At Mitchell-Innes & Nash, new media artist Jacolby Satterwhite offers a tribute to Taylor via an immersive video installation that posits a post-pandemic, post-revolution world in which fembots use ritual and movement as tools of resistance to oppression.
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The first comprehensive exhibition in the United States to explore portrayals of hell across the Asian religious traditions of Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Islam, Comparative Hell: Arts of Asian Underworlds, examines how systems of belief and the underworlds within them are manifest in the rich artistic creations of Asia.
The exhibition is accompanied by an illustrated catalogue with contributions by curator and editor, Adriana Proser, and esteemed scholars Geok Yian Goh, Phyllis Granoff, Christiane Gruber, Michelle Yun Mapplethorpe, and D. Max Moerman. Copublished by Asia Society Museum and Officina Libraria, it is available for purchase at AsiaStore.
Spiritual growth for Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus is a slow process that occurs over many lifetimes. A depiction of the Bhavachakra (Wheel of Life) captures the Buddhist conception of the various realms along the path that can lead to punishment in hell at one extreme or to the bliss of enlightenment at the other. In another painting, Kshitigarbha (known as Chichang Bosal in Korean), a Buddhist being with the capacity to save people from hell, is featured with a large assembly of attendants. This portrayal of the Buddha emerged within the context of East Asia, where the Chinese governmental bureaucracy had a palpable impact on how Buddhists there came to understand the administrative structure that helped determine their fates after death.
For believers, the contrast between heavens and hells articulated in religious texts and illustrated in related artworks emphasizes the consequences of good and evil behaviors and deeds. These stark juxtapositions make it possible for each religion to demonstrate clearly what the results of different types of conduct will be.
The works in this exhibition section, from temple sculptures and banners to coffee house paintings, demonstrate the common notion in Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism that people are judged in death based on their behavior in life. Just as the threat of punishment on earth for criminal behavior is a means to control the basest human behaviors, the threat of punishment in hell serves as a further incentive for people to conform to societal norms and fend off human desires and actions that can damage social structures.
In East Asia, for instance, the bodhisattva Kshitigarbha is one of a few popular savior deities capable of guiding the condemned out of hell. Known as Jizō Bosatsu in Japan, he is a figure of hope. Holding a metal staff, he leads the suffering out of hell. In Southeast Asia, it is Phra Malai who most commonly takes on this role for Buddhists. His legends are featured perhaps most notably in Thai art and rituals associated with the afterlife. His efforts to save the damned who beg to be rescued from hell are frequently depicted in manuscripts and sculptures like those also on view in this gallery.
This interdisciplinary symposium on hell(s) with scholars of religion, theology, art history, and anthropology will explore the artistic expressions of the afterlife across religious traditions in Asia.
A thermodynamics professor had written a take home exam for his graduate students. It had one question: "Is hell exothermic or endothermic? Support your answer with a proof." Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle's Law or some variant. One student, however, wrote the following: First, we postulate that if souls exist, then they must have some mass. If they do, then a mole of souls can also have a mass. So, at what rate are souls moving into hell and at what rate are souls leaving? I think that we can safely assume that once a soul gets to hell, it will not leave. Therefore, no souls are leaving. As for souls entering hell, lets look at the different religions that exist in the world today. Some of these religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, you will go to hell. Since, there are more than one of these religions and people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and all souls go to hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in hell to increase exponentially. Now, we look at the rate of change in volume in hell. Boyle's Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in hell to stay the same, the ratio of the mass of souls and volume needs to stay constant. Thus, there are two possibilities: If hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter hell, then the temperature and pressure in hell will increase until all hell breaks loose.
If hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in hell, than the temperature and pressure will drop until hell freezes over.
If we accept the postulate given to me by a young lady during my first year, "It will be a cold night in Hell before I sleep with you", then number 2 above is not true and so Hell is exothermic. A Response from a Professor of Classics at U. Iowa Now, in Dante's description, upper Hell has regions of intense heat/falling flame, etc, while the very bottom is in fact a frozen lake. This would suggest that while upper hell is largely static, lower hell is rapidly expanding and/or accommodates fewer souls. Since the bottom contains Satan and the worst sinners, the latter explanation (fewer souls) would seem to apply, whereas simply being in the wrong religion would be accommodated above, hence the more intense heat. The student is clearly right. Robert Ketterer back to Bio I lecture
A lot of times, horses would come home without riders, wagons without drivers," said Colone. "Somebody had asked the wife, 'You know, Where the hell's your husband?' The reply was always, 'Gone to hell.'" 041b061a72