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Kai Allen
Kai Allen

Weight Loss



Hundreds of fad diets, weight-loss programs and outright scams promise quick and easy weight loss. However, the foundation of successful weight loss remains a healthy, calorie-controlled diet combined with increased physical activity. For successful, long-term weight loss, you must make permanent changes in your lifestyle and health habits.




Weight Loss



Ideally, find people who will listen to your concerns and feelings, spend time exercising with you or creating healthy menus, and share the priority you've placed on developing a healthier lifestyle. Your support group can also offer accountability, which can be a strong motivation for sticking to your weight-loss goals.


If you prefer to keep your weight-loss plans private, be accountable to yourself by having regular weigh-ins, recording your diet and exercise progress in a journal, or tracking your progress using digital tools.


It may seem obvious to set realistic weight-loss goals. But do you really know what's realistic? Over the long term, it's smart to aim for losing 1 to 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kilogram) a week. Generally to lose 1 to 2 pounds a week, you need to burn 500 to 1,000 calories more than you consume each day, through a lower calorie diet and regular physical activity.


Depending on your weight, 5% of your current weight may be a realistic goal, at least for an initial goal. If you weigh 180 pounds (82 kilograms), that's 9 pounds (4 kilograms). Even this level of weight loss can help lower your risk of chronic health problems, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.


When you're setting goals, think about both process and outcome goals. "Walk every day for 30 minutes" is an example of a process goal. "Lose 10 pounds" is an example of an outcome goal. It isn't essential that you have an outcome goal, but you should set process goals because changing your habits is a key to weight loss.


Adopting a new eating style that promotes weight loss must include lowering your total calorie intake. But decreasing calories need not mean giving up taste, satisfaction or even ease of meal preparation.


While you can lose weight without exercise, regular physical activity plus calorie restriction can help give you the weight-loss edge. Exercise can help burn off the excess calories you can't cut through diet alone.


Exercise also offers numerous health benefits, including boosting your mood, strengthening your cardiovascular system and reducing your blood pressure. Exercise can also help in maintaining weight loss. Studies show that people who maintain their weight loss over the long term get regular physical activity.


It's not enough to eat healthy foods and exercise for only a few weeks or even months if you want long-term, successful weight management. These habits must become a way of life. Lifestyle changes start with taking an honest look at your eating patterns and daily routine.


Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, by a mean loss of fluid, body fat (adipose tissue), or lean mass (namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue). Weight loss can either occur unintentionally because of malnourishment or an underlying disease, or from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained" weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition.


Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss is the main treatment for obesity,[1][2][3] and there is substantial evidence this can prevent progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes with a 7-10% weight loss and manage cardiometabolic health for diabetic people with a 5-15% weight loss.[4]


Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks,[5] increase fitness,[6] and may delay the onset of diabetes.[5] It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.[6] Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[5][failed verification] Weight loss is achieved by adopting a lifestyle in which fewer calories are consumed than are expended.[7] Depression, stress or boredom may contribute to weight increase,[8] and in these cases, individuals are advised to seek medical help. A 2010 study found that dieters who got a full night's sleep lost more than twice as much fat as sleep-deprived dieters.[9][10] Though hypothesized that supplementation of vitamin D may help, studies do not support this.[11] The majority of dieters regain weight over the long term.[12] According to the UK National Health Service and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, those who achieve and manage a healthy weight do so most successfully by being careful to consume just enough calories to meet their needs, and being physically active.[13][7]


For weight loss to be permanent, changes in diet and lifestyle must be permanent as well.[14][15][16] There is evidence that counseling or exercise alone do not result in weight loss, whereas dieting alone results in meaningful long-term weight loss, and a combination of dieting and exercise provides the best results.[17] Meal replacements, orlistat, a very-low-calorie diet, and primary care intensive medical interventions can also support meaningful weight loss.[18][19]


The least intrusive weight loss methods, and those most often recommended, are adjustments to eating patterns and increased physical activity, generally in the form of exercise.[20] The World Health Organization recommends that people combine a reduction of processed foods high in saturated fats, sugar and salt,[21] and reduced caloric intake with an increase in physical activity.[22] Both long-term exercise programs and anti-obesity medications reduce abdominal fat volume.[23]Self-monitoring of diet, exercise, and weight are beneficial strategies for weight loss,[20][24][25] particularly early in weight loss programs.[26] Research indicates that those who log their foods about three times per day and about 20 times per month are more likely to achieve clinically significant weight loss.[20][27]


Weight loss depends on maintaining a negative energy balance and not the type of macronutrients (such as carbohydrate) consumed.[28] High protein diets have shown greater efficacy in the short term for people eating ad libitum due to increased thermogenesis and satiety.[29]


Other methods of weight loss include use of anti-obesity drugs that decrease appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume.[citation needed] Obesity has been resistant to drug-based therapies, with a 2021 review stating that existing medications are "often delivering insufficient efficacy and dubious safety".[30]


There is a substantial market for products which claim to make weight loss easier, quicker, cheaper, more reliable, or less painful. These include books, DVDs, CDs, cremes, lotions, pills, rings and earrings, body wraps, body belts and other materials, fitness centers, clinics, personal coaches, weight loss groups, and food products and supplements.[33] Dietary supplements, though widely used, are not considered a healthy option for weight loss, and have no clinical evidence of efficacy.[34] Herbal products have not been shown to be effective.[35]


In 2008, between US$33 billion and $55 billion was spent annually in the US on weight-loss products and services, including medical procedures and pharmaceuticals, with weight-loss centers taking between 6 and 12 percent of total annual expenditure. Over $1.6 billion per year was spent on weight-loss supplements. About 70 percent of Americans' dieting attempts are of a self-help nature.[36][37]


The scientific soundness of commercial diets by commercial weight management organizations varies widely, being previously non-evidence-based, so there is only limited evidence supporting their use, because of high attrition rates.[38][39][40][41][42][43] Commercial diets result in modest weight loss in the long term, with similar results regardless of the brand,[40][42][44][45] and similarly to non-commercial diets and standard care.[38][3] Comprehensive diet programs, providing counseling and targets for calorie intake, are more efficient than dieting without guidance ("self-help"),[38][46][45] although the evidence is very limited.[43] The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence devised a set of essential criteria to be met by commercial weight management organizations to be approved.[41]


Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or a combination of these.[47][48] It is generally regarded as a medical problem when at least 10% of a person's body weight has been lost in six months[47][49] or 5% in the last month.[50] Another criterion used for assessing weight that is too low is the body mass index (BMI).[51] However, even lesser amounts of weight loss can be a cause for serious concern in a frail elderly person.[52]


Unintentional weight loss can occur because of an inadequately nutritious diet relative to a person's energy needs (generally called malnutrition). Disease processes, changes in metabolism, hormonal changes, medications or other treatments, disease- or treatment-related dietary changes, or reduced appetite associated with a disease or treatment can also cause unintentional weight loss.[47][48][53][54][55] Poor nutrient utilization can lead to weight loss, and can be caused by fistulae in the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, drug-nutrient interaction, enzyme depletion and muscle atrophy.[49]


Continuing weight loss may deteriorate into wasting, a vaguely defined condition called cachexia.[52] Cachexia differs from starvation in part because it involves a systemic inflammatory response.[52] It is associated with poorer outcomes.[47][52][53] In the advanced stages of progressive disease, metabolism can change so that they lose weight even when they are getting what is normally regarded as adequate nutrition and the body cannot compensate. This leads to a condition called anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) and additional nutrition or supplementation is unlikely to help.[49] Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating small amounts, nausea, anemia, weakness and fatigue.[49] 041b061a72


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