Motor Rhythms V2.0.0 KONTAKT [UPDATED]
The present study showed high and significant correlations between brain rhythm amplitudes during the motor task and the HbO and HbR concentrations. While the HbO concentration correlated negatively with the desynchronisation of alpha and beta rhythms, the HbR concentration correlated positively with the decrease in the amplitudes of both rhythms. Alpha and beta rhythms occurring in the central parts of the head (Rolandic rhythms) are manifestation of synchronous activity of neural populations; the contribution of synchronously acting neurons to the EEG amplitude is proportional to their number N, whereas for non-synchronous populations it is proportional to \(\sqrtN\) 17. Brain activation accompanying motor or sensory tasks reflected in hemodynamic changes does not only involve synchronously acting neural populations. The intrinsic electrical activity of brain consists of local field potentials (synchronous and asynchronous) and spikes (action potentials); their coupling with hemodynamic changes manifested by BOLD were studied e.g. in18 and revealed a highly complex and not fully understood relationship. NIRS measurements, which unlike BOLD enable possible detection of HbO/HbR concentration change, have potential to significantly contribute to understanding of neurovascular coupling.
Motor Rhythms v2.0.0 KONTAKT
The relationship between alpha and beta rhythms with fMRI-BOLD in Primary Somatosensory and Motor Cortex was studied during the bimanual motor task by Ritter et al.23. The results showed an inverse correlation between electrophysiological rhythm strengths and the BOLD signal. The BOLD effect is primarily driven by the change in local deoxyhemoglobin concentration which depends on the combined changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and the cerebral blood volume (CBV)24. The changes of these variables have a conflicting effect on the BOLD response. Considering the complex mechanisms behind the generation of the BOLD signal, we may conclude that the findings of Ritter et al.23 are consistent with our results.
Motor activity of infant rat pups was measured continuously between days 3 and 18 of postnatal age. Mother-reared rats on a 12:12 LD cycle exhibited significant rhythmic activity in the circadian range as early as day 5 of postnatal age. Some of the pups reared in isolation from maternal and sibling contact and kept on 12:12 LD cycles, feeding cycles, or combinations of feeding, temperature, and LD cycles also showed rhythmic activity but it was less persistent and of a lower amplitude than the rhythms of the mother-reared group. In the isolated rat pups nocturnal partitioning of activity was strengthened in the presence of both a light-dark cycle and a feeding cycle but only when the feeding resembled more natural nursing rhythms. In animals kept on constant light and a feeding cycle, activity occurred slightly more often during the 12-hr interval of decreased food intake. The addition of a temperature cycle--cooler nocturnal temperature--decreased the proportions of nocturnal motor activity. These results indicate that feeding and light-dark cycles may contribute to the synchronization of activity rhythms during the early postnatal period.
There were no safety issues during the assessments and no adverse events associated with the interventions. Participants considered the rhythmic cued motor imagery interventions to be safe and convenient because they could practise while seated in their homes. Eight out of 10 participants in the music cued motor imagery group, and 4 out of 10 in the metronome cued motor imagery group regarded the intervention to be pleasurable. This result is not surprising as metronome cues are monotonous, whereas music melodies and rhythms carry emotion and are known to have an influence on mood, the desire to move and work output. In the main study, additional quality of life measures will be used to assess the impact of the music and metronome cued motor imagery on psychological functioning. The majority of participants reported the music and metronome cueing being helpful to keep the tempo of their imagined steps and the verbal cueing being supportive to maintain their attention and stay with the rhythm; thus, the same cueing types will be used in the interventions of the main study. The overall compliance was good with a practice frequency per week of median 5 (range 4, 6). We expect a similar compliance in the main study, in particular as the interventions were acceptable, if not pleasurable to participants.