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Kai Allen
Kai Allen

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Your small intestine is lined with tiny hairlike projections called villi, which absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from the food you eat. Celiac disease damages the villi, leaving your body unable to absorb nutrients necessary for health and growth.


If you have celiac disease, eating gluten triggers an immune response in your small intestine. Over time, this reaction damages your small intestine's lining and prevents it from absorbing some nutrients (malabsorption). The intestinal damage often causes diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, bloating and anemia, and can lead to serious complications.

Gluten intolerance can cause this itchy, blistering skin disease. The rash usually occurs on the elbows, knees, torso, scalp and buttocks. This condition is often associated with changes to the lining of the small intestine identical to those of celiac disease, but the skin condition might not cause digestive symptoms.

Celiac disease tends to run in families. If someone in your family has the condition, ask your doctor if you should be tested. Also ask your doctor about testing if you or someone in your family has a risk factor for celiac disease, such as type 1 diabetes.

Your genes combined with eating foods with gluten and other factors can contribute to celiac disease, but the precise cause isn't known. Infant-feeding practices, gastrointestinal infections and gut bacteria might contribute, as well. Sometimes celiac disease becomes active after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection or severe emotional stress.

Some people with celiac disease don't respond to what they consider to be a gluten-free diet. Nonresponsive celiac disease is often due to contamination of the diet with gluten. Working with a dietitian can help you learn how to avoid all gluten.

In rare instances, the intestinal injury of celiac disease doesn't respond to a strict gluten-free diet. This is known as refractory celiac disease. If you still have signs and symptoms after following a gluten-free diet for six months to one year, you might need further testing to look for other explanations for your symptoms.

Genes and Disease is a collection of articles that discuss genes and the diseases that they cause. These genetic disorders are organized by the parts of the body that they affect. As some diseases affect various body systems, they appear in more than one chapter.

Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders that affect hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen through the body. The condition affects more than 100,000 people in the United States and 20 million people worldwide.

Sickle cell disease is a lifelong illness. A blood and bone marrow transplant is currently the only cure for sickle cell disease, but there are effective treatments that can reduce symptoms and prolong life. Your healthcare team will work with you on a treatment plan to reduce your symptoms and manage the condition. The NHLBI is leading and supporting research and clinical trials to find a cure for sickle cell disease.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is movement disorder of the nervous system that gets worse over time. As nerve cells (neurons) in parts of the brain weaken, are damaged, or die, people may begin to notice problems with movement, tremor, stiffness in the limbs or the trunk of the body, or impaired balance. As symptoms progress, people may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has PD, as the symptoms appear in other diseases as well.

PD does not affect everyone the same way. The rate of progression and the particular symptoms differ among individuals. PD symptoms typically begin on one side of the body. However, the disease eventually affects both sides, although symptoms are often less severe on one side than on the other.

PD is the most common form of parkinsonism, which describes disorders of other causes that produce features and symptoms that closely resemble Parkinson's disease. Many disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of PD, including:

In rare cases, where people have a clearly inherited form of PD, researchers can test for known gene mutations as a way of determining an individual's risk of developing the disease. However, this genetic testing can have far-reaching implications and people should carefully consider whether they want to know the results of such tests.

People with PD may also benefit from being proactive and finding out as much as possible about the disease in order to alleviate fear of the unknown and to take a proactive role in maintaining their health. Many people with PD continue to work either full- or part-time, although they may need to adjust their schedule and working environment to accommodate their symptoms.

The average life expectancy of a person with PD is generally the same as for people who do not have the disease. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for people with PD. However, in the late stages, PD may no longer respond to medications and can become associated with serious complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls.

The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use the knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts and supports research on Parkinson's disease are to better understand and diagnose PD, develop new treatments, and ultimately, prevent PD. NINDS also supports training for the next generation of PD researchers and clinicians and serves as an important source of information for people with PD and their families.

Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about PD and related disorders. Clinical research uses human volunteers to help researchers learn more about a disorder and perhaps find better ways to safely detect, treat, or prevent disease.

National Plan establishes six ambitious goals to both prevent future cases of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (AD/ADRD), and to better meet the needs of the millions of American families currently facing this disease.

NIAID played a key role in the available preventive mpox (formerly monkeypox) vaccine as well as treatments that may be used. NIAID continues to conduct research to better understand mpox transmission and disease.

Florida's Coral Reef is experiencing a multi-year outbreak of stony coral tissue lossdisease. While disease outbreaks are not uncommon, this event is unique due to its largegeographic range,extended duration, rapid progression, high rates of mortality and the number of speciesaffected. Thedisease is thought to be caused by bacteria and can be transmitted to other corals throughdirectcontact and water circulation. Researchers are working to identify potential pathogens andrelationships withenvironmental factors, strategies to treat diseased colonies, and identify genotypes ofcorals that areresistant to the disease.

The Southeast Florida Action Network (SEAFAN) is the DEP Coral Reef Conservation Program's marine incident reporting program for citizen scientists within the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area (Coral ECA). Coral Reef Conservation Program staff coordinate response efforts tailored to the incidents and locations. If you are ever out on the water in the Coral ECA and see something that doesn't look right, please fill out a report at On February 5th, SEAFAN received a report of many corals with signs of disease offshore Broward County. DEP notified the stony coral tissue loss disease intervention team members at Nova Southeastern University. Dr. Brian Walker's strike team was able to find the large symmetrical brain coral (Pseudodiploria strigosa) colony, apply an antibiotic treatment, and tag the coral. Intervention strike teams along the reef secure tags to treated corals and ask that citizen scientists submit photos of tagged corals when they see them to aid in monitoring. Dr. Walker's team successfully treated 14 other diseased corals in the area. This marks the first time that intervention practitioners were able to locate and treat a sick coral from a SEAFAN report submitted in the Coral ECA!

For the whole colony treatment, divers cover an entire great star coral colony with a weighted bag and inject probiotics. The divers remove the bag after two hours, allowing the probiotic bacteria to colonize the coral. For the lesion treatment, Smithsonian Marine Station developed a probiotic-loaded paste to apply directly to individual disease lesions. The paste hardens on contact with seawater to prevent it from floating away and adheres to the coral tissue, which allows the probiotic bacteria to colonize the coral.

The research team will revisit treated colonies regularly to assess the probiotic treatment success and retreat corals if necessary. These two innovative strategies mark the first coral probiotic treatments of stony coral tissue loss disease on the reef. Researchers will continue to look at other potential treatment methods and advanced knowledge of coral probiotics in relation to stony coral tissue loss disease.

In August 2020, scientists at the Nova Southeastern University Marine Larval Ecology and Recruitment Laboratory in Florida have successfully induced colonies of great star coral, a major reef-building species, to reproduce in captivity for the first time ever. Great star corals are susceptible to stony coral tissue loss disease and the ability to complete this coral's reproductive cycle in land-based aquaria represents a breakthrough in coral science and restoration.

Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal disease or CKD, is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time. To read more about kidney function, see How Your Kidneys Work.

Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by filtering wastes from your blood. If kidney disease worsens, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like: 041b061a72


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