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Malik Salleh
Malik Salleh

The Meaning Of Happiness: The Quest For Freedom...


The Meaning Of Happiness: The Quest For Freedom... ->>->>->> https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Fbytlly.com%2F2tDRCV&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw3cI0jZf6D0IGxNHK3PQj6x





Abraham Lincoln always insisted that he was an enemy of slavery. "I am naturally anti slavery," Lincoln wrote in 1864. "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong. I can not remember when I did not so think, and feel." But to be `anti-slavery' did not always mean the same thing to every American. Opposition to slavery ran across a spectrum, from abolitionists (who wanted the immediate and unconditional outlawing of slavery) to free-soilers (who opposed the legalization of slavery in the federal territories as a way of preventing the further spread of slavery westwards) to colonizationists (who favored emancipating slaves only if emancipation was followed by deporting the freed slaves) to those who simply opposed slavery in the abstract but who were never prepared actually to do anything about it. Lincoln was certainly not an abolitionist As early as 1837, while still a member of the Illinois state legislature, Lincoln declared that "the institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy; but...the promulgation of abolition doctrines tends rather to increase than to abate its evils." On the other hand, Lincoln was convinced that the original policy of the Founders, who had inherited slave labor from America's colonial past, was to ease slavery out of America's new republican house. "The theory of our government is Universal Freedom," Lincoln said in 1854, and slavery was nothing if not a contradiction of that freedom. It violated the natural rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness which the Declaration of Independence had proclaimed were inalienable to every human being. And so, "the fathers of the Government expected and intended the institution of slavery to come to an end" and "intended that it should be in the course of ultimate extinction." Lincoln was less sure what should be done with the freed slaves once "ultimate extinction" was achieved. American slavery had begun by fastening its shackles only on black Africans, and theories of race in Lincoln's time ruled that blacks were an inferior race, lacking the intelligence or moral capacity of white Americans. The Declaration of Independence taught Lincoln that all men are created equal; but, he conceded, "it did not mean to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments, or social capacity." Blacks and whites alike possessed the natural rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, but he did not embrace the notion that blacks were also entitled to equal civil rights - "making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people." In the 1850s, though, the immediate challenge was the "extinction" of slavery itself. Slavery was protected by state law in the fifteen Southern states of the Union, and no federal law under the Constitution could reach across the wall that separated federal and state governments to lay a finger on slavery. But the western territories were under the direct oversight of the federal government, and there, Congress could ban the introduction of slavery and limit any further spread of the institution. This, argued Lincoln, would be the inevitable doom of slavery, since slavery required constant expansion to survive economically. "Whenever the effort to spread slavery into the new territories, by whatever means...shall be fairly headed off," he predicted, "the institution will then be in course of ultimate extinction." Abolitionists dismissed this strategy as spineless, and the most impatient of them, John Brown, tried instead to topple slavery by inciting an uprising among slaves in Virginia in 1859. Lincoln warned that this was taking the wrong path to the right goal; and by taking the wrong path, the abolitionists would guarantee that the right goal would never be reached. But a year later, in 1860, it was the turn of Southern slaveholders to attempt their own uprising in favor of slavery by breaking up the Union. That November, Lincoln wa




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